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Mixed phase of stannic and stannous oxide and their relation to crystallinity
  • +1
  • A S Bhattacharyya,
  • N Usharani,
  • R P Kumar,
  • A Raju1
A S Bhattacharyya
Centre of Excellence in Green and Efficient Energy Technology (CoE GEET, Central University of Jharkhand, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile
N Usharani
Department of Physics &Electronics, Chaitanya -Deemed to be University
R P Kumar
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nalla Malla Reddy Engineering College Divyanagar
A Raju1
Department of Physics &Electronics, Chaitanya -Deemed to be University


Stannic oxide , Sn (IV) O2 synthesized by the sol-gel method showed heterogeneous crystallinity involving traces of stannous oxide, Sn (II) O as well which were studied based on the nucleation sites and aggregation of crystallites. The height to width ratio (HWR) was found to be an effective means of analyzing the growth process which involved lateral atomic diffusion and reversible phase transitions. The crystallinity and aggregation to larger crystallites is beneficial for electron transfer layer (ETL) in perovskite solar cells. The structure and morphology were determined by XRD and SEM-EDAX