Implications for precision medicine and the reciprocal control of microRNAs by Hippo and TAZ signaling in breast cancer
AbstractThe most prevalent form of cancer in women, breast cancer displays molecular heterogeneity. Recent years have seen a shift toward more physiologically based medicines in an effort to lessen the potentially devastating side effects of treating molecular variety. The Hippo signaling pathway has been linked to the alpha subtype of estrogen receptors in their ability to influence cell destiny in human breast cells. This route controls cell differentiation, which in turn controls organ growth, regeneration, and healing. It also controls the survival of tissue-specific stem cells, cell proliferation, and cell death. Hippo signaling is mediated by the kinases MST1, MST2, LATS1, and LATS2, as well as the adaptor proteins SAV1 and MOB. By phosphorylating yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), two effectors of the Hippo pathway, these kinases inhibit the expression of their downstream target genes. The kinase cascade of the Hippo signaling pathway is critically involved in every kind of cancer. Preventing breast cancer requires an understanding of the concepts behind this kinase cascade. The development of numerous cancers, including breast cancer, has been linked to microRNAs in recent years. In contrast, our understanding of the relationships between miRNAs and the key proteins of the Hippo signaling pathway in the breast is still in its infancy. In this overview, we have centered our attention on the Hippo signaling system, its components, its role in breast cancer, and the miRNAs and associated pathways that regulate it.