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The Invisible Threat: Urban Pollution’s Silent Assault on Respiratory Well-being
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  • Javeria Khan,
  • Sundus Abdul Ghani,
  • Syed Adnan Ahmad,
  • Hadiya Javed
Javeria Khan
Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Sundus Abdul Ghani
Dow Medical College
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Syed Adnan Ahmad
Saidu Medical College
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Hadiya Javed
Dow Medical College
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Abstract

The detrimental impact of air pollution on human health is a growing concern, particularly in urban areas. Various factors, including industrial activities, traffic emissions, wildfires, and domestic heating, have led to the release of harmful pollutants such as PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, NO, and O3, which exacerbate respiratory risks. Those diagnosed with respiratory conditions like Asthma, bronchitis, URTI, pneumonia, COPD, and Lung Tuberculosis are especially vulnerable to these pollutants. Air pollution contributes to both acute and chronic respiratory events. Acute exposure can result in respiratory diseases or worsen chronic conditions like COPD. Socioeconomic status is closely linked to the prevalence of lung tuberculosis, particularly in areas with high air pollution. Studies highlight the impact of air pollutants on vulnerable populations, such as children in urban households exposed to unclean fuels and the association with respiratory symptoms. Emergency room visits for asthma in children and the elderly reveal the delayed and immediate effects of different pollutants, emphasizing the need for air quality control. In addition to exacerbating chronic conditions, air pollution during prenatal and postnatal periods poses risks to fetal lung development. Maternal exposure to pollutants, including tobacco smoke, increases the risk of respiratory dysfunction in children. Preventive measures, such as prenatal counseling and awareness campaigns for vulnerable populations, are essential to mitigate the impact of air pollution. Furthermore, reducing emissions from industries and vehicles is crucial for improving air quality and safeguarding public health. Extensive research in this field is imperative to address this pressing environmental and health issue.  Most importantly, prenatal genetic alterations are a new area of research for silent assault by air pollution that requires more literature.