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A comprehensive review on experimental models of Stress: Pragmatic insight into psychoneuroimmunology
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  • Ashmun Nisha,
  • Arshiya Shamim,
  • Aleza Rizvi,
  • Tarique Mahmood,
  • Bhagyashree Goswami,
  • Farogh Ahsan,
  • Shariq Mohammad,
  • Saba Parveen
Ashmun Nisha
Hygia Institute of Pharmacy
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Arshiya Shamim
Integral University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Aleza Rizvi
Hygia Institute of Pharmacy
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Tarique Mahmood
Integral University
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Bhagyashree Goswami
Hygia Institute of Pharmaceuticals Education and Research
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Farogh Ahsan
Integral University
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Shariq Mohammad
Integral University
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Saba Parveen
Integral University
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Abstract

Psychoneuroimmunology is the branch of science that shows the relation between the nervous system, emotions, and immune system. In this study, we differentiate the interaction procedures between mind and body when exposed to stress. The symptoms of psychoneuroimmunological stress are depression, aggression, fear and social withdrawal which can affect the body. According to Charles Darwin humans and animals show the same characteristics and symptoms so they help identify the pharmacological mechanism and potential clinical effects of the drug. Animal models of stress are based on the difference of opinion giving rise to a motivation state to induce and approach the avoidance situations. This review contains the different model of stress induction that are also used worldwide. Here in this review, we used the word “Ethological” which is used for the assessment of unlearned and unpunished behaviors like EPS, EZM, light-dark box, open field test, etc. The learned and punished models are used under the category “conditioned operant conflict test like the Vogel conflict test. We also discussed the models of classic conditioning like fear conditioning and psychosocial models like social defeat, and physical and chronic unpredictable stress. This review also shows the effect of the immune system response on the mind and body of animals.