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Cooking PM2.5 Emissions in Kazakh Households and Their Contribution to Indoor Levels
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  • Ferhat Karaca,
  • Mert Guney,
  • Akmaral Agibayeva,
  • Nurlan Otesh,
  • Mukhtar Kulimbet,
  • Natalya Glushkova,
  • Yuefang Chang,
  • Akira Sekikawa,
  • Kairat Davletov
Ferhat Karaca
Nazarbaev Universitet

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Mert Guney
Nazarbaev Universitet
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Akmaral Agibayeva
Nazarbaev universitet
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Nurlan Otesh
Nazarbayev University
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Mukhtar Kulimbet
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
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Natalya Glushkova
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
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Yuefang Chang
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
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Akira Sekikawa
University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health
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Kairat Davletov
Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University
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The present study proposes an exposure model for indoor PM2.5 levels during cooking activities in poorly ventilated Kazakh houses with high emission levels. It aims to identify influencing factors of PM2.5 concentration patterns during cooking and explain the mechanisms underlying the build-up and downtrend of PM2.5 concentrations. The methodology integrates PM2.5 sampling, monitoring, and modeling to predict household PM2.5 levels and estimate daily concentrations, employing USEPA’s IAQX v1.1 for simulating the one-zone concept for cooking-related PM2.5 concentrations in multiple households. During cooking, PM2.5 concentrations varied between 13 and 266 µg/m3. Kitchen size, air exchange, type of food, and cooking methods were key factors influencing the observed concentrations. The model demonstrated high accuracy (R>0.9). The contribution of cooking to household air pollutant (HAP) PM2.5 levels ranged from 9% to 94%. This impact was more pronounced in warmer months. In colder months, outdoor PM levels and household ventilation were the primary factors regulating indoor air concentrations. The present study is among the first attempts to assess exposure to HAP in Central Asia, providing foundational insights into the poorly understood indoor air quality of Kazakh houses. Future research should refine models to account for individual behaviors and house types, improving accuracy and representativeness.
21 Sep 2023Submitted to Engineering Reports
22 Sep 2023Assigned to Editor
22 Sep 2023Submission Checks Completed
22 Sep 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
25 Sep 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
20 Nov 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Major