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Isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli and Salmonella from Diarrheic Dairy Calves in Hawassa Town, Southern Ethiopia
  • Tesfaye Geda,
  • Mesele Abera,
  • Kassaye Aragaw
Tesfaye Geda
Hawassa University College of Natural and Computational Science
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Mesele Abera
Hawassa University College of Natural and Computational Science
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Kassaye Aragaw
Hawassa University College of Natural and Computational Science
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Abstract

Calf diarrhea is a very common disease syndrome in neonatal calves impacting the dairy industry and animal welfare. The study was aimed to isolate E. coli and Salmonella from diarrheic calves and antimicrobial susceptibility. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2020 - June 2021 in dairy farms in Hawassa town. A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic calves aged up to 4 months from intensive management. Standard bacteriology revealed; 91 (89.2%) and 5 (4.9%) of the fecal samples were with E. coli and Salmonella, respectively. Animal and environmental risk factors showed; age (OR= 10.79, p< 0.05; OR= 9.41, p< 0.05), body condition score (OR=0.037, p< 0.001; OR= 5.86, p< 0.05), bedding (OR=5.73, p< 0.05; OR=0.60, p< 0.05), housing (OR= 6.30, p< 0.05; OR= 0.58, p< 0.05), first colostrum feeding (OR= 4.69, p< 0.05; OR=5.08, p< 0.05), and house hygiene (OR= 0.20, p< 0.05; OR=6.52, p< 0.05) showed significant association with the occurrence of E. coli and Salmonella, respectively. The antimicrobial study revealed that most of the E. coli isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol (100%) followed by ciprofloxacin (95%) and nalidixic acid (87.5%). However, isolated Salmonella showed 100% susceptibility to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and nitrofurantoin followed by 80% susceptibility to gentamicin. Both isolates showed high resistance to erythromycin and ampicillin. In conclusion, the detection of high E. coli and relatively low Salmonella isolate in this study could be considered as a potential causative agent of diarrhea in calves leading to improved management practices and hygiene suggestions.