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Coinfection of influenza A and B and human OC43 coronavirus in normal human bronchial epithelial cells
  • JungHyun Kim,
  • Brady Hickerson,
  • Natalia Ilyushina
JungHyun Kim
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Office of Biotechnology Review and Research II
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Brady Hickerson
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Office of Biotechnology Review and Research II
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Natalia Ilyushina
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Office of Biotechnology Review and Research II

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Abstract

Background Influenza viruses and seasonal coronaviruses are pathogens transmitted via an airborne route that can cause respiratory diseases in humans that have similar symptoms such as fever, cough, and pneumonia. These two viruses can infect similar human tissues, such as the respiratory tract and nasal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells. Influenza virus and seasonal coronavirus coinfections are poorly understood. Methods Here, we coinfected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells with influenza A/California/04/09 (IAV) or B/Victoria/504/2000 (IBV) strains and the seasonal human beta-coronavirus OC43 and evaluated viral replication capacities. We also examined changes in the expression of various cytokines/chemokines by qPCR and Luminex assay. Results We observed that replication of IAV and IBV was not affected by coinfection with OC43. However, coinfection reduced OC43 titers (~ 3-fold) compared to infection with OC43 alone. Select cytokine/chemokine expression was increased in coinfected cells compared to all single infections with greater differences seen between coinfected cells and cells infected with OC43 alone compared to IAV- or IBV-infected cells. In addition, IL-8 and IL-1RA showed the highest expression among a panel of 22 cytokines by Luminex. Conclusions As the rate of influenza and seasonal coronavirus coinfection continue to increase, our findings may help set guidelines for the treatments of the individuals coinfected with both viruses.
27 Aug 2023Submitted to Influenza and other respiratory viruses
28 Aug 2023Assigned to Editor
28 Aug 2023Submission Checks Completed
08 Sep 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
12 Nov 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
12 Nov 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Major