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Short review: Crosstalk between Abiotic and Biotic stress responses of Cymbopogon species

      Abstract

      Cymbopogon spp . (lemongrass), which is a perennial herb, belongs to the family Poaceae. It has been used in traditional and ayurvedic medicine for over a century in a range of countries. Lemongrass possesses antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic applications. It’s also used to treat diabetes, sickness, the flu and pneumonia. The fragrant grass Cymbopogon spp . contains essential oil with a pleasant lemon flavour. But the plants are constantly subjected to a range of environmental stresses, limiting their agricultural output. Plant damage caused by various pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, insects and weeds results in biotic stresses. Abiotic stresses include drought, heat, salt, heavy metals and cold, which ultimately have a negative impact on agricultural plant potential and output. Biotic and abiotic stresses also affect the secondary metabolites in plants. Abiotic stress (drought, heat, salt, cold) causes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cellular compartments. Plants sense external stress via specific receptors and transduce the foreign signal into intracellular downstream signalling pathways that include activation of protein kinase or phosphatase, stimulation of downstream target proteins and phytohormone biosynthesis to improve plant growth and development.