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ZnO nanomaterials target mitochondrial apoptosis and mitochondrial autophagy pathways in cancer cells
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  • Yuanyuan Li,
  • Jingjing Li,
  • Yan Lu,
  • Yonghua Ma
Yuanyuan Li
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Jingjing Li
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Yonghua Ma

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The application of engineered nanomaterials has helped promote the development of various biomedical fields in recent years. Zinc oxide nanomaterials (ZnO NMts) have been widely used in many biomedical fields and become one of the candidate materials for anticancer applications due to their biocompatibility, unique physicochemical properties, stability, and low-cost large-scale production. This article reviews the advantages of ZnO NMts nanoplatform in cancer treatment, abnormal apoptosis - the occurrence of cancer, the development of glioma, the effects of ZnO NMts in vitro and in vitro tumor cell models, as well as the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. It was found that it was mainly related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative stress, and the pro apoptotic proteins Bcl-2-related X protein (BAX), Bcl-2 antagonist / killer (BAK) and p53 indirectly or directly led to the increase of mitochondrial membrane permeability and ultimately mitochondrial apoptosis. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) involved HIF-1α-BNIP3-LC3B pathway mediates the mitophagy pathway. This review also emphasizes that in clinical application, the synthesis method of ZnO NMts, the consistency of evaluation parameters, and the determination of biomarkers using standards and related tumors will be the focus of targeted treatment of cancer.