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Mpox reinfection: a literature review

      Abstract

      Several countries reported mpox cases since the beginning of the 2022 worldwide outbreak. Although MPXV infection is expected to provide long-term protection against reinfection and the global epidemic is waning, new infections are still detected worldwide and cases of mpox reinfection have been reported since January 2023, putting the paradigm of protective immunity in doubt. As little is known about the viral and host mechanisms of mpox reinfection, it is critical to understand the determinants behind long-term post-infectious immune protection. This review summarizes cases of possible mpox reinfections reported up to July 2023 and highlights key concepts and knowledge about mpox to guide future research in the field.