Predictive coding framework posits that our brain continuously monitors
changes in the environment and updates its predictive models, minimizing
prediction errors to efficiently adapt to environmental demands.
However, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of these
predictive phenomena remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore
the systemic neurophysiological correlates of predictive coding
processes during passive and active auditory processing.
Electroencephalography (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy
(fNIRS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) measures were analyzed using
an auditory pattern-based novelty oddball paradigm. A sample of
thirty-two healthy subjects was recruited. The results showed shared
slow evoked potentials between passive and active conditions that could
be interpreted as automatic predictive processes of anticipation and
updating, independent of conscious attentional effort. A dissociated
topography of the cortical hemodynamic activity and distinctive evoked
potentials upon auditory pattern violation were also found between both
conditions, whereas only conscious perception leading to imperative
responses was accompanied by phasic ANS responses. These results suggest
a systemic-level hierarchical reallocation of predictive coding neural
resources as a function of contextual demands in the face of sensory
stimulation. Principal component analysis permitted to associate the
variability of some of the recorded signals.