The establishment of in vitro models plays a vital role in understanding
and investigating pulmonary fibrosis (PF) at the cellular and molecular
levels. In this paper, we conduct a literature review and provide an
analysis of various cellular models used in scientific experiments,
along with their applications in understanding the pathogenesis of PF.
Our studies indicate that a comprehensive understanding of PF should not
be based on a single cell type or organ, but on a multi-organ,
multi-level, and multi-perspective approach. Primary cells demonstrate
superior cell growth characteristics and gene expression profiles.
However, challenges such as limited availability, difficulties in
maintenance, inability for continuous propagation, and susceptibility to
phenotype loss over time significantly restrict their utility in
scientific research. On the other hand, replacement cell lines can be
easily obtained, cultured, and continuously propagated, but their
phenotypic characteristics are somewhat different compared to primary
cells. In vitro co-culture models offer a more practical and precise
means to elucidate the intricate interactions between cells, tissues,
and organs. Therefore, when constructing pathology models of PF,
researchers should carefully consider the advantages, limitations, and
relevant mechanisms associated with different cell models for selection
according to the research objectives.