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Comparative Efficacy of Transcranial Alternating and Direct Current Stimulation for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review
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  • David Lo,
  • Don Shamilov,
  • Kyle Jackson,
  • Pranay Maniar
David Lo
Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Don Shamilov
Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine
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Kyle Jackson
Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine
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Pranay Maniar
Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine
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Abstract

lzheimer’s disease is a major cause of death among elderly patients and is characterized by beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The current treatment methods have been ineffective, but recent advancements in transcranial current stimulation have shown positive effects on memory and cognition in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease. Transcranial current stimulation involves the application of electrical current at specific frequencies to various brain regions, with two distinct types: direct current stimulation (tDCS) and alternating current stimulation (tACS). This paper aims to compare the effectiveness of tDCS and tACS in treating MCI. A structured systematic review was conducted on 33 articles from various databases, which included randomized, placebo, self-reported, motivational, comparative, and literature review studies published within the last 10 years. Data analysis involved calculating statistical significance and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for specific treatment modalities and outcome measures. The results highlight the potential of both tACS and tDCS as non-invasive treatment options for MCI in AD. Further research with larger sample sizes, standardized protocols, and longer-term follow-ups is needed to establish a clear superiority between the two techniques. Nonetheless, tACS and tDCS interventions hold promise in improving the quality of life for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. While both interventions showed promising results, the review suggests that tACS exhibits more favorable outcomes in certain cognitive domains compared to tDCS. To establish a clear superiority between tDCS and tACS, further research involving larger sample sizes, standardized protocols, and longer-term follow-ups is necessary.