Laccases have shown to be efficient biocatalysts for the removal of
recalcitrant pollutants from wastewater. Thus, they catalyse the
oxidation of a wide variety of organic compounds by reducing molecular
oxygen to water. However, the use of free laccases holds several
drawbacks such as poor reusability, high cost, low stability and
sensibility to different denaturing agents that may occur in wastewater.
Such drawbacks can be circumvented by immobilising laccase enzymes in/on
solid carriers. Hence, during the last decades different approaches
considering various techniques and solid carriers to immobilise laccase
enzymes have been developed and tested for the removal of pollutants
from wastewater. To scale up wastewater treatment bioprocesses, the
immobilised laccases are placed in different reactor configurations.