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miR-221 and Parkinson’s disease: A biomarker with therapeutic potential
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  • Mohammad Yassin Zamanian,
  • Mehraveh Sadeghi Ivraghi,
  • Reena Gupta,
  • KDV Prasad ,
  • Hashem Alsaab,
  • Beneen Hussien,
  • Hazem Ahmed,
  • Montather Ramadan,
  • Maryam Golmohammadi,
  • Nikta Nikbakht,
  • Tuba Oz ,
  • Małgorzata Kujawska
Mohammad Yassin Zamanian
Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Mehraveh Sadeghi Ivraghi
Qazvin University of Medical Sciences
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Reena Gupta
GLA University
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KDV Prasad
Symbiosis International (Deemed University)
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Hashem Alsaab
Taif University
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Beneen Hussien
The Islamic University
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Hazem Ahmed
Al-Farahidi University
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Montather Ramadan
Al-Ayen University
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Maryam Golmohammadi
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
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Nikta Nikbakht
Hamedan University of Medical Sciences
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Tuba Oz
Poznan University of Medical Sciences
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Małgorzata Kujawska
Poznan University of Medical Sciences
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to various motor and non-motor symptoms. Several cellular and molecular mechanisms such as alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They are typically about 21-25 nucleotides in length and are involved in the regulation of gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. miRNAs like miR-221 play important roles in various biological processes, including development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. miR-221 is also implicated in promoting neuronal survival against oxidative stress and in promoting neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation. Additionally, the role of miR-221 in PD has been investigated in several studies. According to the results of this study; 1) miR-221 protects against oxidative stress in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cells; 2) miR-221 prevents Bax/caspase-3 signaling activation by stopping Bim; 3) miR-221 has moderate predictive power for PD; 4) miR-221 directly targets PTEN, and PTEN over-expression eliminates the protective action of miR-221 on p-AKT expression in PC12 cells; 5) miRNA-221, by manipulating the Akt signaling pathway, performs in controlling cell viability and apoptosis in PD. This review study suggests that miR-221 has the potential to be used as a clinical biomarker for PD diagnosis and stage assignment.
18 Oct 2023Submitted to European Journal of Neuroscience
19 Oct 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
19 Oct 2023Submission Checks Completed
19 Oct 2023Assigned to Editor
19 Oct 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
05 Nov 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Major
09 Nov 20231st Revision Received
10 Nov 2023Submission Checks Completed
10 Nov 2023Assigned to Editor
10 Nov 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
11 Nov 2023Editorial Decision: Accept