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Microfluidics-A novel technique for high quality sperm selection for greater ART outcomes
  • Gh Rasool Bhat,
  • Farooz Ahmad Lone
Gh Rasool Bhat
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Farooz Ahmad Lone
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir
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Abstract

Microfluidics represent a quality sperm selection technique. Human couples fail to conceive and this is so in a significant population of animals worldwide. Male/sperm contributes a lot to infertility, so are outcomes of assisted reproduction affected by sperm. Microfluidics, deals with minute volumes of liquids run in small scale microchannel networks in the form of laminar flow streamlines. Microfluidic sperm selection designs have been developed in chip formats, mimicking in vivo situations. Here sperms are selected and analyzed on the basis of motility and sperm behavioral properties. Compared to conventional sperm selection methods, this selection method enables to: produce high quality motile sperm cells possessing non-damaged or least damaged DNA, achieve greater success of insemination in bovines and achieve enhanced pregnancy rates and live births in assisted reproduction-In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). Besides, the concentration of sperm available to oocyte can be controlled by regulating the flow rate in microfluidic chips. The challenges in this technology are: commercialization of chips, development of fully functional species-specific microfluidic tools, limited number of studies available in literature and need of more understanding in reproductive physiology across species for domestic animals. In conclusion, microfluidics in assisted reproduction are great advances having advantages for quality sperm selection. Future directions to make this technology superior may need to modify chip designs to formulate species specific low-cost chips for commercialization. Comprehensive studies in animal species need to be carried out for wider application of microfluidic sperm selection in invitro procedures.