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CRISPR-Cas systems in oral bacteria and their role in periodontal disease pathogenesis and periodontal therapy: a review
  • Aditi Chopra,
  • Geeta Bhuvangiri,
  • Kshitija Natu
Aditi Chopra
Manipal College of Dental Sciences

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Geeta Bhuvangiri
Manipal College of Dental Sciences
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Kshitija Natu
Manipal College of Dental Sciences
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Abstract

‘Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats’ (CRISPRs) are DNA sequences that can remove, edit or manipulate a genome sequence by either activating or inhibiting a specific gene sequence in the host. CRISPR along with Cas genes forms the CRISPR-Cas systems. CRISPR-Cas are found in many oral bacteria, whereby they influence the physiology, metabolism, and defense of the bacteria. CRISPR-Cas-gene produces specific endonucleases that act like molecular scissors, that are capable of excising a DNA strand. Oral microbes utilize CRISPR-Cas systems for acquiring nutrients, communication (quorum sensing), invasion, evading the host immune response, horizontal gene transfers, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance. CRISPR-Cas genes play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases as they can modulate the host immune and inflammation response. This revolutionary technology can be employed in precision periodontal therapy. This review aims to discuss the types of CRISPR genes in oral microbiota, their mechanisms, and how they can be employed for managing periodontal disease pathogenicity and periodontal therapy.