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Cow Dung: A Small World for Microflora and Macro Fauna
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  • Sivagami Subramaniam,
  • Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin,
  • Nor Aisyah Nordin,
  • Nor Azwady Abd Aziz,
  • Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim,
  • Dzarifah Zulperi
Sivagami Subramaniam
University Putra Malaysia Faculty of Science
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Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin
University Putra Malaysia Faculty of Science

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Nor Aisyah Nordin
University Putra Malaysia Faculty of Science
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Nor Azwady Abd Aziz
University Putra Malaysia Faculty of Science
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Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim
University Putra Malaysia Faculty of Science
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Dzarifah Zulperi
Universiti Putra Malaysia Faculty of Agriculture
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Abstract

Cow dung (CD) benefits nature with its exclusive properties, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, biofertilizer, pesticide, microbial and soil fertility booster due to its physicochemical properties. CD promotes diverse microflora and macrofauna. Coprophils inhabit to condition the dung for the other decomposers. Some species of them are similar in distant nations promising the reliability of CD property. The intra-specific competition between the fungal colony is substantial to ensure the dominant phyla over decomposition. Besides, bacteria colonize before fungi due to their survivability in high moisture, thus, preparing the CD for the growth of coprophils. Generally, these two microflora colonies communicate to ensure their dependency on CD (endosymbiosis, competition, detoxification, pathogenicity, and mycelial interactions). The anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties of CD may be due to the antagonistic relationship of fungal-fungal or fungal-bacterial association in CD. Among the dung arthropods, dung beetles are crucial due to their bigger size, diverse gut microbiota, and rolling and burrowing strategies to permit the colonization of microbes. Furthermore, the earthworms aggregate under CD upon deposition and complete the biogeochemical process by casting and conditioning to make the nutrients available for plant intake. They also restore soil fertility by vermicomposting and enhances their relationship with dung beetles and microbial population.