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Clinical Strategies and Therapeutics for Human Monkeypox Virus: A Revised Perspective on Recent Outbreaks
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  • Ramesh Kandimalla,
  • Nilanjan Ghosh,
  • Leena Chacko,
  • Jayalakshmi Vallamkondu,
  • Tanmoy Banerjee,
  • Birbal singh,
  • Rajkumar Singh Kalra,
  • Jasvinder Singh Bhatti,
  • Saikat Dewanjee
Ramesh Kandimalla
Kakatiya Medical College

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Nilanjan Ghosh
Jadavpur University Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
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Leena Chacko
Meso Scale Diagnostics LLC
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Jayalakshmi Vallamkondu
National Institute of Technology Warangal
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Tanmoy Banerjee
Jadavpur University Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
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Birbal singh
Indian Veterinary Research Institute Regional Station Palampur
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Rajkumar Singh Kalra
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University Promotion Corp
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Jasvinder Singh Bhatti
Central University of Punjab School of Health Sciences
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Saikat Dewanjee
Jadavpur University Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
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An enveloped double-stranded DNA monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a causative agent of zoonotic viral disease viz. Human monkeypox (HMPX). MPXV belongs to the genus Orthopoxviridae, a family of notorious smallpox viruses, and so it shares similar clinical pathophysiological features. The recent multi-country HMPX outbreak (May 2022 onwards) is recognized as an emerging global public health emergency by WHO, shunting its endemic status as opined over the past few decades. Re-emergence of HMPX raises concern to re-assess the present clinical strategy and therapeutics as its outbreak evolves further. Keeping a check on these developments, here we provide insights into the HMPX epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical representation. Weighing on its early prevention, we reviewed the strategies that are being enrolled for HMPX diagnosis. In the line of expanded MPXV prevalence, we further reviewed its clinical management and the diverse employed preventive/ therapeutic strategies, including vaccine (JYNNEOS, ACAM2000, VIGIV) and antiviral drugs/inhibitors (Tecovirimat, Cidofovir, Brincidofovir). Taken together, with a revised perspective of HMPX re-emergence, the present report summarizes new knowledge on its prevalence, pathology, and prevention strategies.