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Possible Involvement of Gut Microbiota In Gout Pathophysiology
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  • Arun Parashar,
  • Riya Thakur,
  • Dhriti Verma,
  • Vineet Mehta
Arun Parashar
Shoolini University

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Riya Thakur
Shoolini University
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Dhriti Verma
Shoolini University
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Vineet Mehta
Government Pharmacy College Rohru
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Abstract

Gout results from a metabolic disorder characterized by increased uric acid (UA) levels or hyperuricemia (HUA). UA is a metabolic waste product generated throughout the body and collected in the blood. UA metabolism predominantly occurs in the liver, kidney, and intestine, with the liver being the most significant as it converts purines into UA. About ~70% of UA is excreted via the kidney, while ~30% is via the intestine. UA excretion from the kidney has been extensively studied, while that from the intestine has been overlooked. As the intestine is responsible for one-third of UA excretion, researchers investigated whether or not the microbes residing in the gut, known as the human gut microbiota (GM), are involved in UA excretion. GM is now evidently responsible for UA excretion and lowering effects. As our understanding of the effects of gut microbiomes on health grows, GM has emerged as a new promising target for HUA interventions. Moreover, gut dysbiosis is also associated with gout. Furthermore, some prebiotics (polysaccharides, and polyphenols) and probiotics (Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli) have UA-lowering effects, which provides a new promising dimension for gout therapeutic intervention research. GM interventions like probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, phenols, polysaccharides, washed microbiota transplantation (WMT), and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) reduced HUA by either increasing excretion or lowering UA levels. In this review, we explore the possible involvement of GM in UA metabolism and excretion and possible involvement in gout pathophysiology.