Alteration in the physiological state of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
leads to the specific response known as unfolded protein response (UPR)
or ER stress response. The UPR is driven by three sensor proteins,
namely: Inositol Requiring Enzyme 1 (IRE1), Protein Kinase RNA like ER
kinase (PERK), and Activating Transcription Factor 6 (ATF6) to restore
ER homeostasis. Pathogenic infection can initiate UPR activation; some
pathogens can subvert the UPR to promote their survival and replication.
Many intracellular pathogens, including Leishmania, can interact
and hijack ER for their survival and replication, triggering ER stress
and subsequently ER stress response. This review aims to provide a
comprehensive overview of the ER stress response in infections with the
Leishmania species .