One of the most serious problems worldwide is heavy metal (HM)
pollution. HMs can have a toxic effect on human health and thus cause
serious diseases. To date, several methods have been used to clean
environments contaminated by HMs, but most of them are expensive, and it
is difficult to achieve the desired result. Phytoremediation is
currently an effective and affordable processing solution used to clean
and remove HMs from the environment. This review article discusses in
detail the technology of phytoremediation and mechanisms of HM
absorption. In addition, methods are described using genetic engineering
of various plants to enhance the resistance and accumulation of HMs.
Thus, phytoremediation technology can become an additional aid to
traditional methods of purification.