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Differential expression of type I interferon and inflammatory genes in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients treated with monoclonal antibodies
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  • Giancarlo Ceccarelli,
  • Luca Maddaloni,
  • Letizia Santinelli,
  • Ginevra Bugani,
  • Elio Gentilini Cacciola,
  • Alessandro Lazzaro,
  • Chiara M. Lofaro,
  • Sara Caiazzo,
  • Federica Frasca,
  • Matteo Fracella,
  • Camilla Ajassa,
  • Cristiana Leanza,
  • Anna Napoli,
  • Lilia Cinti,
  • Aurelia Gaeta,
  • Guido Antonelli,
  • Claudio Maria Mastroianni,
  • Carolina Scagnolari,
  • Gabriella d'Ettorre
Giancarlo Ceccarelli
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Luca Maddaloni
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Letizia Santinelli
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Ginevra Bugani
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Elio Gentilini Cacciola
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Alessandro Lazzaro
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Chiara M. Lofaro
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Sara Caiazzo
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Federica Frasca
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare
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Matteo Fracella
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare
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Camilla Ajassa
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Cristiana Leanza
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Anna Napoli
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare
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Lilia Cinti
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare
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Aurelia Gaeta
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Guido Antonelli
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare
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Claudio Maria Mastroianni
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Carolina Scagnolari
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare
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Gabriella d'Ettorre
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive
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Abstract

Considering the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the Spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in reducing disease severity, the aim of this study was to investigate the innate immune response before and after mAbs treatment in 72 vaccinated and 31 unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 patients. Type I interferon (IFN-I) signature and cytokines genes were evaluated by real time RT-PCR. The vaccinated patients had increased negative rate of SARS-CoV-2 RT/real-time PCR tests as compared to unvaccinated ones after mAbs treatment. Unvaccinated patients but also those that resulted negative for serum anti-S antibodies despite vaccination had lower IFN-I and higher IFN-I related genes and cytokines mRNAs levels as compared to vaccinated individuals before mAbs. In addition, patients with low anti-S antibody titer showed immune genes expression levels between those found in negative and patients with high titer of anti-S antibodies. Changes in IFN-I pathway and cytokines levels were observed in unvaccinated patients after mAbs treatment, while the expression of most of the type I IFN genes and cytokines analysed, except for ISGs and IL-10 mRNAs, remained unchanged vaccinated patients. These data suggest that mAbs treatment is associated to a different virological and immunological response in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients according to their vaccination status and related anti-S antibodies titers.
16 May 2023Submitted to Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
16 May 2023Submission Checks Completed
16 May 2023Assigned to Editor
16 May 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
29 May 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
20 Jun 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Major
04 Jul 20231st Revision Received
09 Jul 2023Submission Checks Completed
09 Jul 2023Assigned to Editor
09 Jul 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
09 Jul 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
20 Jul 2023Editorial Decision: Accept