The idea of e-flows emerged as a result of the efforts to lessen the
effects of river flow alterations. The role of e-flows in ecosystem
protection and water resources management isn’t yet fully understood and
practiced. This review summarizes the historical evolution of the
concept and recaps the assessment methods; analyze impacts of river flow
alterations, and identifying gaps in the focus of e-flows researches. A
total of 303 articles published since 2010 were collected and assessed.
Most of the publications are focused on describing the effects and
management of river flow alterations. According to the findings of this
meta-analysis, less attention is given for basin scale, social, policy
aspects of e-flows. Moreover, the role, importance, and influence of
groundwater in the e-flows is given minor attention.