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IN VITRO INVESTIGATION OF POLY(PROPYLENE FUMARATE) CURED WITH PHOSPHONIC ACID BASED MONOMERS AS SCAFFOLDS FOR BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING
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  • Gamze Torun Köse,
  • Görkem Cemali,
  • Begüm Okutan,
  • Erde Can Şafak
Gamze Torun Köse
Yeditepe University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Görkem Cemali
Yeditepe University
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Begüm Okutan
Medizinische Universitat Graz
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Erde Can Şafak
Yeditepe University
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Abstract

Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) is an unsaturated polyester that can be copolymerized with a vinyl monomer to give a biocompatible and biodegradable thermoset. The PPF has been successfully cured with vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and vinyl phosphonic acid di-ethyl ester (VPES) to improve various properties of PPF polymers as bone tissue scaffolds. However, the cell-material interactions of VPA and VPES cured PPF scaffolds have not been reported before. Therefore, the essential novelty of this research is the demonstration of the in vitro biocompatibility and bone formation capacity of VPA and VPES cured PPF scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, the PPF polymer was synthesized via polycondensation of fumaric acid and excess propylene glycol, then thermally cured with VPA and VPES in the presence of benzoyl peroxide initiator via radical polymerization at changing co-monomer and initiator weight ratios. The biocompatibility of the materials was analyzed by MTS assay, indicated that PPF/VPA 70/30 copolymers supported human osteoblast cell (HOb) attachment and proliferation better than other copolymers. Scanning electron microscope analyses showed all samples supported HObs attachment and growth. The von Kossa, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin activities were evaluated in order to observe the osteoblast activity of HObs seeded onto thermally cured PPF copolymers. Both PPF/VPA (80/20) 2% BP and PPF/VPA (70/30) 3% BP were found superior to all other samples. Conclusively, thermally cured PPF/VPA scaffolds represent a novel and promising strategy for the in vitro induction of osteogenesis.