As one of the most urgent social and health problems in the world,
neurological diseases have always been attracted by researchers.
However, the pathological mechanisms and therapeutic approach are not
achieved. In addition to the established roles of oxidative stress,
inflammation and immune response, the changes of gut microbiota are also
closely related to the development of neurological diseases. Emerging
insights on the roles of gut microbiota have confirmed its
indispensability in the development of neurological diseases, including
neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. The dynamic
bidirectional communication pathway between gut microbiota and central
nervous system is called “gut-brain axis”, which involves immune,
metabolic and neural pathways. In this review, we discussed the complex
relationship between gut microbiota and the central nervous system from
the perspective of gut-brain axis, reviewed the mechanism of microbiota
in different neurological diseases, and prospected the employment of gut
microbiota in the therapeutic approach of those diseases.