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Skin surface material for detecting human papillomavirus infection of skin warts
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  • Akira Shimizu,
  • Yuko Kuriyama,
  • Mieko Kosaka,
  • Akira Kaneko,
  • Hirokazu Nishioka,
  • Kazushi Anzawa,
  • Tomoyasu Hattori,
  • Naoya Igarashi,
  • Masaaki Tamura,
  • Sei-ichiro Motegi
Akira Shimizu
Gunma Daigaku Daigakuin Igakukei Kenkyuka Igakubu Noshinkei Gekagaku

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Yuko Kuriyama
Gunma Daigaku Daigakuin Igakukei Kenkyuka Igakubu Noshinkei Gekagaku
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Mieko Kosaka
Maruho Kabushiki Kaisha
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Akira Kaneko
Maruho Kabushiki Kaisha
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Hirokazu Nishioka
Maruho Kabushiki Kaisha
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Kazushi Anzawa
Kanazawa Ika Daigaku
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Tomoyasu Hattori
Hattori Dermatology Clinic
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Naoya Igarashi
Igarashi Dermatology Clinic
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Masaaki Tamura
Sano Kosei Sogo Byoin
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Sei-ichiro Motegi
Gunma Daigaku Daigakuin Igakukei Kenkyuka Igakubu Noshinkei Gekagaku
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Abstract

Warts, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, have various clinical presentations, making them difficult to differentiate from clavus, callus, and sometimes squamous cell carcinoma. Although skin biopsies are the gold standard, a less-invasive method of examining these lesions is desired. Ninety patients with warts and related diseases, such as corns and callus, were collected to explore new differentiation methods using the surface of the warts. DNA was extracted from three types of specimens in each case: surface swab, shaved hyperkeratotic scale, and post-shaved surface swab. We then analyzed samples for the HPV type and HPV viral load using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifty-five cases were PCR-positive, and HPV1a, 2a, 4, 27, 57, and 65 were detected. The amount of HPV1a DNA produced was significantly greater than that of other HPV types. Regarding the correlation between the clinical diagnosis and HPV detection, the positive agreement rate was 90.9%, the negative agreement rate was 40.0%, and the overall agreement rate was 71.1%. Ten of the 21 cases clinically diagnosed as plantar warts were PCR-negative, especially in elderly patients. Although the amount of HPV DNA in the removed keratinization scale was highest for all HPV types, HPV detection by swabbing before and after shaving is also useful for follow-up as well as the differential diagnosis.