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The sunscreen 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and reproduction: Environmental presence, mechanism of action and effects in different experimental models
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  • Cassandra Lax,
  • Elin Wicksell,
  • Anastasia Grip,
  • Jenni Niemi,
  • Wen Liu,
  • Alexandra Rafeletou,
  • Błażej Kudłak,
  • Helgi Schioth
Cassandra Lax
Uppsala University
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Elin Wicksell
Uppsala University
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Anastasia Grip
Uppsala University
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Jenni Niemi
Uppsala University
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Wen Liu
Uppsala University
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Alexandra Rafeletou
Uppsala University
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Błażej Kudłak
Gdansk University Faculty of Chemistry
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Helgi Schioth
Uppsala University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) is a photo-absorbing UV filter, which can be absorbed into the circulation and cause systemic effects. 4-MBC is found extensively in the environment and measurements suggest bioaccumulation in human tissues. 4-MBC is continued to be released in the environment despite the growing knowledge about its potential endocrine and reproductive disrupting effects. 4-MBC interfers with various processes, such as placental development, spermatogenesis, and inflammatory cascades. Previous reviews mention 4-MBC as one of the several UV filters but here we focus on 4-MBC only. We cover the potential effects on human health regarding systemic and molecular effects, with the focus on reproduction. We also cover the potential bioaccumulation and interactions with receptor systems, such as the estrogen receptors β and α, and progesterone receptor, and analyze 4-MBC´s effects on mRNA expression and protein expression. Furthermore, 4-MBC is reported to act with inflammatory pathways by activating p38 MAPK and NF-κB, leading to the production of inflammatory TNF-α and IL-6. In conclusion, 4-MBC has wide ranging effects in different models while there is more research warranted to detail the mechanism of action, long-term effects at low doses and the potential interaction with many pathways and other pollutants.
03 Dec 2022Submitted to Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
05 Dec 2022Submission Checks Completed
05 Dec 2022Assigned to Editor
05 Dec 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
05 Dec 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
05 Jan 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Major
30 Mar 20231st Revision Received
31 Mar 2023Submission Checks Completed
31 Mar 2023Assigned to Editor
31 Mar 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
31 Mar 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
24 Apr 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
09 May 20232nd Revision Received
09 May 2023Submission Checks Completed
09 May 2023Assigned to Editor
09 May 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
10 May 2023Editorial Decision: Accept