Crosstalk and trade-offs: Plant responses to climate change-associated
abiotic and biotic stresses
As sessile organisms, plants are constantly challenged by a dynamic
growing environment. This includes fluctuations in temperature, water
availability, light levels, and atmospheric conditions. In concert with
changes in abiotic conditions, plants experience changes in biotic
stress pressures, including plant pathogens, viruses, and herbivores.
Human-induced increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO
2) levels have led to alterations in plant growth
environments that challenge their productivity and nutritional quality.
Additionally, it is predicted that climate change will alter the
prevalence and virulence of plant pathogens, further challenging plant
productivity. A knowledge gap exists in the complex interplay between
plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Closing this
gap is crucial for developing climate resilient crops in the future.
Here, we review the physiological responses of plants to elevated CO
2, temperature, tropospheric ozone (O
3), and drought conditions, as well as the interaction
of these abiotic stress factors with plant pathogen pressure.
Additionally, we describe the crosstalk and trade-offs involved in plant
responses to both abiotic and biotic stress, and outline targets for
future work to develop a more sustainable future food supply in light of
future climate change.