Viral systems such as wild-type viruses, viral vectors, and virus-like
particles are essential components of modern biotechnology and medicine.
Despite their importance, the commercial-scale production of viral
systems remains highly inefficient for multiple reasons. Computational
strategies are a promising avenue for improving process development,
optimization, and control, but require a mathematical description of the
system. This article reviews mechanistic modeling strategies for the
production of viral particles, both at the cellular and bioreactor
scales. In many cases, techniques and models from adjacent fields such
as epidemiology and wild-type viral infection kinetics can be adapted to
construct a suitable process model. These process models can then be
employed for various purposes such as in-silico testing of novel process
operating strategies and/or advanced process control.