Left Brachiocephalic Vein Occlusion with Spontaneous Arteriovenous
Fistula Presenting with Severe Edema of Left Upper Extremity and Face: A
The coexistence of central venous occlusion (CVO) and arteriovenous
fistulas (AVF) is rare among non-dialysis patients, and its diagnosis
and treatment can be challenging. Herein, we describe a case of left
brachiocephalic vein occlusion (BVO) with spontaneous AVF presenting
with severe edema of the left upper extremity and face.