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Linking human impacts to community processes in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems
  • +30
  • Ian R. McFadden,
  • Agnieszka Sendek,
  • Morgane Brosse,
  • Peter M. Bach,
  • Marco Baity-Jesi,
  • Janine Bolliger,
  • Kurt Bollmann,
  • Eckehard G. Brockerhoff,
  • Giulia Donati,
  • Friederike Gebert,
  • Shyamolina Ghosh,
  • Hsi-Cheng Ho,
  • Imran Khaliq,
  • J. Jelle Lever,
  • Ivana Logar,
  • Helen Moor,
  • Daniel Odermatt,
  • Loïc Pellissier,
  • Luiz Jardim De Queiroz,
  • Christian Rixen,
  • Nele Schuwirth,
  • J. Ryan Shipley,
  • Cornelia W. Twining,
  • Yann Vitasse,
  • Christoph Vorburger,
  • Mark K. L. Wong,
  • Niklaus E. Zimmermann,
  • Ole Seehausen,
  • Martin M. Gossner,
  • Blake Matthews,
  • Catherine H. Graham,
  • Florian Altermatt,
  • Anita Narwani
Ian R. McFadden
Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Author Profile
Agnieszka Sendek
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Morgane Brosse
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Peter M. Bach
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Marco Baity-Jesi
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Janine Bolliger
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Kurt Bollmann
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Eckehard G. Brockerhoff
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Giulia Donati
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Friederike Gebert
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Shyamolina Ghosh
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Hsi-Cheng Ho
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Imran Khaliq
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
J. Jelle Lever
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Ivana Logar
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Helen Moor
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Daniel Odermatt
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Loïc Pellissier
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich
Luiz Jardim De Queiroz
Institute of Ecology & Evolution, University of Bern, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Christian Rixen
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Nele Schuwirth
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
J. Ryan Shipley
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Cornelia W. Twining
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Yann Vitasse
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Christoph Vorburger
Institute of Integrative Biology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Mark K. L. Wong
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia
Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Ole Seehausen
Institute of Ecology & Evolution, University of Bern, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Martin M. Gossner
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich
Blake Matthews
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Catherine H. Graham
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)
Florian Altermatt
Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)
Anita Narwani
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)

Abstract

Human impacts such as habitat loss, climate change and biological invasions are radically altering biodiversity, with even greater effects projected into the future. Evidence suggests human impacts may differ substantially between terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. We propose an integrative approach to explain these differences by linking impacts to the fundamental processes that structure communities: dispersal, speciation, ecological selection and ecological drift. Our goal is to provide process-based insights into why human impacts, and the responses to these impacts, may differ across ecosystem types within a mechanistic, eco-evolutionary comparative framework. To enable these insights, we review and synthesize i) how the four processes can influence diversity and dynamics in terrestrial and freshwater communities, focusing on whether their relative importance may or may not differ among ecosystems, and ii) how human impacts can alter terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity in different ways due to differences in process strength among ecosystems. Finally, we highlight research gaps and next steps, and discuss how this approach can provide new insights for conservation. By focusing on the processes that shape diversity in communities, we aim to mechanistically link human impacts to ongoing and future changes in ecosystems.