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Fractions with too much friction; Genome-wide SNPs in the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus reveal a hybrid origin for the subspecies
  • Ahmad Farhadi,
  • A Jeffs,
  • Shane Lavery
Ahmad Farhadi
Shiraz University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Shane Lavery
University of Auckland
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Evolutionary divergence and speciation often occur at a slower rate in the marine realm due to the higher potential for long-distance reproductive interaction through larval dispersal. One common evolutionary pattern in the Indo-Pacific, is divergence of populations and species at the peripheries of widely-distributed organisms. However, the evolutionary and demographic histories of such divergence are yet to be well understood. Here we address these issues by coupling genome-wide SNP data with mitochondrial DNA sequences to test the patterns of genetic divergence and possible secondary contact among geographically distant populations of the highly valuable spiny lobster Panulirus homarus species complex, distributed widely through the Indo-Pacific, from South Africa to the Marquesas Islands. After stringent filtering, 2020 SNPs were used for population genetic and demographic analyses, revealing strong regional structure (FST = 0.148, P<0001), superficially in accordance with previous analyses. However, detailed demographic analyses supported a much more complex evolutionary history of these populations, including a hybrid origin of a North-West Indian Ocean (NWIO) population, which has previously been discriminated morphologically, but not genetically. The best-supported demographic models suggested that the current genetic relationships among populations were due to a complex series of past divergences followed by asymmetric migration in more recent times. Overall, this study suggests that alternating periods of marine divergence and gene flow have driven the current genetic patterns observed in this lobster and may help explain the observed wider patterns of marine species diversity in the Indo-Pacific.