Simultaneous profiling of oral and placenta microbiome in pregnant women
with Preeclampsia: a cross-sectional study
Objective: Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of morbidity and
mortality in pregnancy. This observational study aims to determine
associations between oral and placental microbiome in women with and
without preeclampsia and periodontal disease (PD) and evaluate systemic
immune responses in patients with and without PE and PD. Population:
Fifty-four pregnant patients with and without PE and PD were recruited.
The microbiome profiles of both oral subgingival region and placenta
were characterized by V4 region of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Systemic
inflammation markers tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive
protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), interleukins 6
& 8 (IL-6, IL-8) in blood were measured by ELISA. Results: PD
significantly increased the risk of PE after adjustments for age,
preterm delivery and smoking status (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.14-4.48,
p=0.024). A group of oral associated bacteria Veilonella, Fusobacterium,
Haemophilus, Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Gemella and Neisseria in
placenta had significantly higher prevalence in women with PE compared
to women without PE (53.8% vs 19.0%, p=0.018), the highest prevalence
in patients with both PE and PD (58.8%). Relative abundances of
Haemophilus, Veillonella and Fusobacterium in oral samples were
significantly higher in patient with PE than those without PE.
Proinflammation cytokine analysis showed that PE patients with PD had
higher blood IL-8 levels than PE patients without PD (p=0.028).
Conclusion: Oral-like microbiome was identified in placenta more
frequently in patients with PE than those without PE. Placental
microbiome is associated with systemic inflammation. High abundances of
Haemophilus in oral cavity is associated with increased risk of PE.