Altered contractility in mutation-specific hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:
a mechano-energetic in silico study with pharmacological insights
Introduction: Mavacamten (MAVA), Blebbistatin (BLEB), and Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) are promising drugs directly targeting sarcomere dynamics, with demonstrated efficacy against hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in clinical trials. However, the molecular mechanism affecting cardiac contractility regulation, and the diseased cell mechano-energetics are not fully understood yet. Methods: We present a new metabolic-sensitive computational model of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) electromechanics to investigate the pathology of R403Q HCM mutation and the effect of MAVA, BLEB, and OM on the cell mechano-energetics. Results: We offer a mechano-energetic HCM calibration of the model, capturing the prolonged contractile relaxation due to R403Q mutation (~33%), without assuming any further modifications such as an additional Ca2+ flux to the thin filaments. The HCM model variant correctly predicts the negligible alteration in ATPase activity in R403Q HCM condition compared to normal hiPSC-CMs. The simulated inotropic effects of MAVA, OM, and BLEB, along with the ATPase activities in the control and HCM model variant agree with in vitro results from different labs. The proposed model recapitulates the tension-Ca2+ relationship and action potential duration change due to 1uM OM and 5uM BLEB, consistently with in vitro data. Finally, our model replicates the experimental dose-dependent effect of OM and BLEB on the normalized isometric tension. Conclusion: This work is a step toward deep-phenotyping the mutation-specific HCM pathophysiology, manifesting as altered interfilament kinetics. Accordingly, the modeling efforts lend original insights into the MAVA, BLEB, and OM contributions to a new interfilament balance resulting in a cardioprotective effect.