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DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF FEATHER WASTE BY KERATINASES WITH PROMISING BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS
  • Nashmia Kamran,
  • zeeshan Muhammad Zeeshan Khalil
Nashmia Kamran
Government College University Lahore

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zeeshan Muhammad Zeeshan Khalil
Government College University Lahore
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Abstract

Feathers account for the major pollutant of the poultry industry due to its recalcitrant nature. They are composed of keratins that has numerous application in various fields. The untreated feathers production from poultry industry are considered major pollutant because of their resistance towards protease degradation. Chicken feathers can be enzymatically degraded by keratinases that are secreted by numerous bacteria and fungi and converted into value-added products. Degradation by keratinolytic bacteria represent as an alternative for the development of cost-effective, eco-friendly and cheap source of nitrogenous fertilizers that are needed for plant growth. The feather degradation also results in the release of tryptophan that acts as precursor for the phytohormone. The hydrolysate plays important role in the seed germination and plant growth. They also serve as an alternative tool to improve soil biological activities, organic farming and agro-ecosystems. The mechanism of degradation comprises of the three steps, sulfitolysis, proteolysis that is followed by deamination. This review summarizes the progress in the feather degradation by keratinases, its structure, mechanism of action and feather application.