loading page

Emergence of Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma rufipes adults revealed by citizen science tick monitoring in Hungary
  • +4
  • Gabor Foldvari,
  • Éva Szabó,
  • Gábor Endre Tóth,
  • Zsófia Lanszki,
  • Brigitta Zana,
  • Zsaklin Varga,
  • Gabor Kemenesi
Gabor Foldvari
Okologiai Kutatokozpont

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile
Éva Szabó
Okologiai Kutatokozpont
Author Profile
Gábor Endre Tóth
University of Pecs Biologia Intezet
Author Profile
Zsófia Lanszki
University of Pecs Biologia Intezet
Author Profile
Brigitta Zana
University of Pecs Biologia Intezet
Author Profile
Zsaklin Varga
University of Pecs Biologia Intezet
Author Profile
Gabor Kemenesi
University of Pecs Biologia Intezet
Author Profile


Hyalomma ticks are important vectors of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) and other pathogens. They are frequently carried as immatures from Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean areas to temperate Europe via migratory birds and emergence of its adults has been reported in many countries where it has so far been non-endemic. Our aim was to implement the first steps of the DAMA (Document, Assess, Monitor, Act) protocol by monitoring the potential arrival of adult Hyalomma ticks in Hungary applying citizen-science methods. Ticks were collected from April-December 2021 by asking volunteer participants through a self-made website to look for unusual hard ticks on themselves, their pets and livestock. Owing to the intensive media campaign, the project website had over 31 thousand visitors within seven months and 137 specimens and several hundreds of photos of hard ticks were submitted by citizen scientists from all over the country. Beside Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis inermis, a specimen from a dog was morphologically identified as a male Hyalomma marginatum and another removed from a cattle as a male Hyalomma rufipes. The dog and the cattle had never been abroad, they were approximately 280 km apart, thus the two Hyalomma observations can be considered as separate introductions. Amplification of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene was successful for both specimens. Sequencing verified the previous morphological identification for both ticks. Based on the phylogenetic analyses the Hy. marginatum individual most likely belongs to the Eurasian population and the Hy. rufipes to a clade of mixed sequences from Europe and Africa. We summarize the scattered historical reports about the occurrence of Hyalomma ticks and CCHFV in Hungary. Our data highlight the effectiveness of citizens science programmes in the monitoring and risk assessment of CCHFV emergence and preparedness in our region.
18 Feb 2022Submitted to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
18 Feb 2022Submission Checks Completed
18 Feb 2022Assigned to Editor
24 Feb 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
08 Mar 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
20 Mar 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Major
24 Mar 20221st Revision Received
24 Mar 2022Assigned to Editor
24 Mar 2022Submission Checks Completed
24 Mar 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
09 Apr 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
11 Apr 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
12 Apr 20222nd Revision Received
12 Apr 2022Submission Checks Completed
12 Apr 2022Assigned to Editor
12 Apr 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
16 Apr 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
16 Apr 2022Editorial Decision: Accept