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The pattern of play behaviors in white-headed langurs from 1 to 12 months old in limestone forests, southwest China
  • +4
  • Li Ting Yang,
  • Tao Sun,
  • Yingming Zhou,
  • Chuangbin Tang,
  • Chengming Huang,
  • Penglai Fan,
  • Qihai Zhou
Li Ting Yang
Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection (Guangxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Guilin, Guangxi, China

Corresponding Author:3268946489@qq.com

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Tao Sun
Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection (Guangxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Guilin, Guangxi, China
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Yingming Zhou
Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection (Guangxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Guilin, Guangxi, China
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Chuangbin Tang
College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guangxi Normal University for Nationalities, Chongzuo, Guangxi, China
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Chengming Huang
Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection (Guangxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Guilin, Guangxi, China
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Penglai Fan
Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection (Guangxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Guilin, Guangxi, China
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Qihai Zhou
Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection (Guangxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Guilin, Guangxi, China
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Abstract

Play behavior is a significant trait of immature nonhuman primates (hereafter primates), which may play important roles in sensory, locomotor, socio-cognitive, and developmental processes in primates. It has been suggested that function of play is to practice and improve motor skills related to foraging, avoiding predation, attracting mates, raising offspring, and also is to strength social skills concerning to cementing friendly relationships and defraying aggression among individuals. From September 2009 to August 2010, we investigated play behaviors of 1-12-month-old white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) which is a critically endangered primate endemic to China. During this study, we recorded 4,421 play bouts and 1,302 minutes of play time of 7 infants in total. We found that infants had different play behavior patterns at different ages. Specifically, non-social play behaviors appeared at 1 month of age, social play behaviors at 2 months, and all types of social and non-social play behaviors at 3 months. The frequency and duration of non-social play peaked at 5 months and then decreased, while social play appeared at 2 months and gradually increased with age. Non-social play did not differ between the sexes, whereas social play showed sex specificity, with higher frequency and duration of social play in male infants than in female infants. In addition, male and female white-headed langur infants appeared to prefer the individuals of same sex as social playmates. In conclusion, we first reported the pattern of play behavior of a critically endangered langur aged 1 to 12 months though the sample size is small, our results suggest they may have the adaptation of play behaviors in ages and sexes, which may help them adapt to their habitat and social system.
24 Dec 2021Submitted to Ecology and Evolution
29 Dec 2021Submission Checks Completed
29 Dec 2021Assigned to Editor
10 Jan 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
22 Feb 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
28 Feb 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
09 Apr 20221st Revision Received
10 Apr 2022Assigned to Editor
10 Apr 2022Submission Checks Completed
10 Apr 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
11 Apr 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
25 Apr 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
15 May 20222nd Revision Received
16 May 2022Assigned to Editor
16 May 2022Submission Checks Completed
16 May 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
17 May 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
01 Jun 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
01 Jun 20223rd Revision Received
02 Jun 2022Assigned to Editor
02 Jun 2022Submission Checks Completed
02 Jun 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
20 Jun 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
21 Jun 20224th Revision Received
22 Jun 2022Submission Checks Completed
22 Jun 2022Assigned to Editor
22 Jun 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
11 Jul 2022Editorial Decision: Accept