Background: Cross-reactivity between wheat and other cereals is an
essential issue in the management of wheat allergy. Few studies have
reported in vitro cross-reactivity in immediate-type wheat allergy. This
study aimed to examine cross-reactivity of the three fractions
(albumin/globulin, gliadin, and glutenin fractions) among cereals in
children with wheat allergy. Methods: Sera from 128 children with
immediate-type wheat allergy were collected. We measured specific
immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels against each fraction of wheat, barley,
and rye by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Cross-reactivities of each fraction among wheat, barley, and rye were
examined via inhibition ELISA. Results: All subjects were sensitized to
all the fractions of wheat, and also those of barley and rye. The wheat
sIgE levels were significantly higher than those of barley and rye in
all the fractions (p ≤ 0.001) and were significantly correlated with
sIgE levels to them in each fraction (r = 0.887–0.969, p <
0.001). On inhibition ELISA, wheat inhibited the IgE binding to most of
the solid phases at the lower protein levels compared to barley and rye
in all fractions. Conclusions: In children with immediate-type wheat
allergy, sensitization to all the three fractions of wheat was observed.
In addition, they showed sensitization to barley and rye caused by in
vitro cross-reactivity with wheat in each fraction. When managing
children with wheat allergy, sensitization to barley and rye caused by
the cross-reactivities should be considered.