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A Case Study of the Glycoside Hydrolase Enzyme Mechanism Using an Automated QM-cluster Model Building Toolkit
  • Qianyi Cheng,
  • Nathan J. DeYonker
Qianyi Cheng
The University of Memphis

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Nathan J. DeYonker
The University of Memphis
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Abstract

Glycoside hydrolase enzymes are important for hydrolyzing the β-1,4 glycosidic bond in polysaccharides for deconstruction of carbohydrates. The two-step retaining reaction mechanism was explored with different sized QM-cluster models built by the Residue Interaction Network ResidUe Selector (RINRUS) software using both the wild-type protein and its E217Q mutant. The first step is the glycosylation, in which the acidic residue 217 donates a proton to the glycosidic oxygen leading to bond cleavage. In the subsequent deglycosylation step, one water molecule migrates into the active site and attacks the anomeric carbon. Residue interaction-based QM-cluster models lead to reliable structural and energetic results for proposed glycoside hydrolase mechanisms. The free energies of activation for glycosylation in the largest QM-cluster models were predicted to be 19.5 and 31.4 kcal mol -1 for the wild-type protein and its E217Q mutant, which agree with experimental trends that mutation of the acidic residue Glu217 to Gln will slow down the reaction, and are higher in free energy than the deglycosylation transition states (13.8 and 25.5 kcal mol -1 for the wild-type protein and its mutant, respectively). For the mutated protein, glycosylation led to a low-energy product. This thermodynamic sink may correspond to the intermediate state which was isolated in the X-ray crystal structure. Hence, the glycosylation is validated to be the rate-limiting step in both the wild-type and mutated enzyme. The E217Q mutation led to a higher glycosylation activation free energy that also agrees with experimental observation that mutation of E217 will slow down the reaction, but not deactivate catalysis.
24 Mar 2022Published in Frontiers in Chemistry volume 10. 10.3389/fchem.2022.854318