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A European pharmacotherapeutic agent Roflumilast exploring integrated preclinical and clinical evidences for SARS CoV-2 mediated inflammation to organ damage
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  • yogendra Singh,
  • Neeraj Fuloria,
  • Shivkanya Fuloria,
  • Vetriselvan Subramaniyan,
  • Waleed Almalki,
  • Fahad Al-abbasi,
  • Imran Kazmi,
  • Sobhit Rajput,
  • Gaurav Gupta
yogendra Singh
Maharishi Arvind College of Pharmacy
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Neeraj Fuloria
AIMST University
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Shivkanya Fuloria
AIMST University
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Vetriselvan Subramaniyan
MAHSA University
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Waleed Almalki
Umm Al-Qura University
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Fahad Al-abbasi
King Abdulaziz University
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Imran Kazmi
King Abdulaziz University
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Sobhit Rajput
Aligarh College of Pharmacy
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Gaurav Gupta
Suresh Gyan Vihar University
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Abstract

COVID-19 has spread globally, affecting almost 160 million individuals. Elderly and pre-existing patients (such as diabetes, heart disease and asthma), seems more susceptible to serious illness with COVID-19. Roflumilast was licensed for usage in the European Union in July 2010 as a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor. Roflumilast has been shown to decrease bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, lung hydroxyproline, right heart thickning in animal prophylactic. The current study reviewed existing data that the PDE-4 inhibitor protects not just renal tissues but also other major organ systems after COVID-19 infection by decreasing immune cell infiltration. These immune-balancing effects of roflumilast were related with a decrease in oxidative and inflammatory burden, caspase-3 suppression, and increased PKA/cAMP levels in renal and other organ tissue.
21 Sep 2021Submitted to British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
22 Sep 2021Submission Checks Completed
22 Sep 2021Assigned to Editor
08 Nov 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
18 Dec 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
31 Dec 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Major
18 Jan 20221st Revision Received
15 Feb 2022Submission Checks Completed
15 Feb 2022Assigned to Editor
15 Feb 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
27 Feb 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
19 Mar 2022Editorial Decision: Accept
30 Mar 2022Published in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 10.1111/bcp.15328