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Extrinsic and intrinsic factors influencing the emergence and return of Asian particolored bats Vespertilio sinensis
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  • Lei Feng,
  • Hexuan Qin,
  • Jingjing Li,
  • Xin Li,
  • Jiang Feng,
  • Tinglei Jiang
Lei Feng
Northeast Normal University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Hexuan Qin
Northeast Normal University
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Jingjing Li
Jilin Agricultural University
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Xin Li
Jilin Agricultural University
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Jiang Feng
Northeast Normal University
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Tinglei Jiang
Northeast Normal University
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The circadian rhythm is an adaptive biological process, allows organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes and implement appropriate strategies. Circadian rhythms play a crucial role in the health and survival of organisms. However, little is known concerning how intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect animal daily rhythms in the field, especially in nocturnal animals. Here, we investigated the emergence and return times of Vesperilio sinensis, and also integrated environmental conditions (temperature, humidity and light intensity) and biotic factors (reproductive status and predation risk) to determine causes of variation in the activity rhythms of the bats. We found that variation in the first emergence time, the mid-emergence time, and the final return time were distinct. The results demonstrated that the emergence and return times of bats were affected by light intensity, reproductive status, and predation risk in a relatively complex pattern. Light intensity had the greatest contribution to activity rhythms. Moreover, we first investigated the effects of actual predators on the activity rhythms of bats; the results showed that the mid-emergence time of bats was earlier as predators were hunting, but the final return time was later when predators were present. This challenges the traditional view that high predation risk leads to later emergence and earlier return. Finally, our results also highlighted the importance of higher energy demands during the lactation period in bats to variation in activity rhythms. These results improve our understanding of the patterns and causes of variation in activity rhythms in bats and other nocturnal animals.
20 Oct 2021Submitted to Ecology and Evolution
21 Oct 2021Submission Checks Completed
21 Oct 2021Assigned to Editor
28 Oct 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
22 Nov 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
29 Nov 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
02 Feb 20221st Revision Received
02 Feb 2022Submission Checks Completed
02 Feb 2022Assigned to Editor
02 Feb 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
03 Feb 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
15 Mar 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
04 Apr 20222nd Revision Received
04 Apr 2022Submission Checks Completed
04 Apr 2022Assigned to Editor
04 Apr 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
19 Apr 2022Editorial Decision: Accept