Abstract Background: This study aimed to describe the clinical
characteristics, pathogeny and bronchoscopic findings of 34 children
with bronchitis obliterans after severe pneumonia. Methods: Thirty-four
children diagnosed with bronchitis obliterans were retrospectively
studied at the Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in
China between January, 2014 and October, 2020. The clinical
manifestations, pathogeny, lung computed tomography imaging and
bronchoscopic findings of the 34 children were reported. Results: In
children with bronchitis obliterans, repeated coughing, fever, wheezing,
tachypnea, and lung rales were common clinical manifestations.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) was the most common etiologic
agent, followed by adenovirus. The CT scan images included uneven lung
inflation(12/34), lung consolidation( 27/34), pulmonary
atelectasis(23/34), and pleural effusion(22/34). All children underwent
flexible bronchoscopy, and major types of airway findings were
identified: mucosal congestion, luminal longitudinal folds, mucosal
erosion or necrosis, hyperplastic changes, sputum emboli, bronchiectasis
and obliterative-like lesions. Conclusion: In conclusion, severe M.
pneumoniae pneumonia and adenovirus pneumonia appeared to have a higher
risk of development of bronchitis obliterans. Bronchoscopy can be used
as the main criterion for the diagnosis of bronchitis obliterans.
Bronchoscopy interventional treatment is an effective measure to quickly
recanalize the occluded lumen, but there is a risk of recurrence after
treatment. Children with severe pneumonia should undergo regular
follow-up and bronchoscopy to detect possible lumen occlusion in time.