Risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes depend on smoking status, a
study from a developing country
Background: This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for smoking
and negative perinatal outcomes among Jordanian women about smoking
status. Methods: A case-control study was conducted among singleton
full-term pregnant women who gave birth at the main hospital in Jordan
in June 2020. They were divided into three groups according to their
smoking status (active, passive and non-smokers) and were interviewed
using a semi-structured questionnaire, including demographic
information, current pregnancy history, perinatal and neonatal outcomes.
The study investigated the effect of smoking status on both independent
and dependent variables. Results: Our study revealed that low-level
maternal education (OR=25.38), unemployed maternal status (OR=2.67), the
absence of following up during pregnancy (OR=5.8), smoking husband were
risk factors for smoke exposure among pregnant women. The risk for
cesarean section was increased in nulliparous smoking women (OR=9.0),
those with low family monthly income (OR=7.8), and those who did not get
any information about the hazard effect of smoking (OR=4.38), as well as
in unemployed passive smoking women (OR=6.25). Parity of more than one
has raised the risk of NICU admission inactive smoking women (OR=10.38).
This risk was also increased in active and passive women with a lower
level of education (OR=186.33 and OR=17.5), respectively, as well as
inactive smoking women with low family monthly income (OR=4.11).
Conclusions: Appropriate preventive strategies should focus on
modifiable risk factors for smoking during pregnancy.