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Genotyping of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Sudan Between 2009 and 2018
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  • Nick Knowles,
  • Yazeed A. Raouf,
  • Jemma Wadsworth,
  • Abdelghani Bi-Tarif,
  • Ashley R. Gray,
  • Mohammed Habiela,
  • Amira A/Almutalb,
  • Hanan Yousif,
  • Maysa Ragab,
  • Wefag Al Fouz,
  • Nussiba H. Ahmed,
  • Inas Ibrahim,
  • Ahmed Almustafa,
  • Markos Tibbo,
  • Ahmad M. Almajali,
  • Cornelis Maanen,
  • Nicholas Lyons,
  • Donald King
Nick Knowles
Pirbright Institute
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Yazeed A. Raouf
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Jemma Wadsworth
Pirbright Institute
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Abdelghani Bi-Tarif
Pirbright Institute
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Ashley R. Gray
Pirbright Institute
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Mohammed Habiela
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Amira A/Almutalb
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Hanan Yousif
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Maysa Ragab
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Wefag Al Fouz
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Nussiba H. Ahmed
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Inas Ibrahim
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Ahmed Almustafa
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) Khartoum Sudan
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Markos Tibbo
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Subregional Office for the Gulf Cooperation Council States and Yemen Abu Dhabi 62072 United Arab Emirates
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Ahmad M. Almajali
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Subregional Office for the Gulf Cooperation Council States and Yemen Abu Dhabi 62072 United Arab Emirates
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Cornelis Maanen
The European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Rome Italy
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Nicholas Lyons
Pirbright Institute
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Donald King
Pirbright Institute
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Abstract

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is widely distributed in Sudan where outbreaks occur on an annual basis especially during the winter months (December-February). This study aimed to increase our understanding of the epidemiological patterns of FMD in Sudan and connections to neighbouring countries by characterising the genetic sequences of FMD viruses (FMDV) collected from seven Sudanese states over a 10-year period (between 2009 and 2018). FMDV was detected in 91 of the 265 samples using an antigen-detection ELISA. Three serotypes were detected: O (46.2%), A (34.1%), and SAT 2 (19.8%). Fifty-three of these samples were submitted for sequence analyses, generating sequences that were characterised as belonging to O/EA-3 (n=18), A/AFRICA/G-IV (n=23) and SAT 2/VII/Alx-12 (n=12) viral lineages. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence that FMDV lineages were maintained within Sudan, and also highlighted epidemiological connections to FMD outbreaks reported in neighbouring countries in East and North Africa (such as Ethiopia and Egypt). This study motivates continued FMD surveillance in Sudan to monitor the circulating viral lineages and broader initiatives to improve our understanding of the epidemiological risks in the region.

Peer review status:UNDER REVIEW

02 Aug 2021Submitted to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
03 Aug 2021Assigned to Editor
03 Aug 2021Submission Checks Completed
25 Aug 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned