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Pathology and One Health implications of fatal Leptospira interrogans infection in an urbanized, free-ranging, black-tufted marmoset ( Callithrix penicilatta ) in Brazil
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  • Tais M. Wilson,
  • Jana M. Ritter,
  • Roosecelis B. Martines,
  • Alexandra A. B. Gonçalves,
  • Pamela Fair,
  • Renee Galloway,
  • Zachary Weiner,
  • Alessandro P. M. Romano,
  • Gabriela R. T. Costa,
  • Cristiano de Melo,
  • Sherif R. Zaki,
  • Márcio Botelho de Castro
Tais M. Wilson
Universidade de Brasilia
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Jana M. Ritter
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology
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Roosecelis B. Martines
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology
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Alexandra A. B. Gonçalves
Universidade de Brasilia
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Pamela Fair
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology
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Renee Galloway
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology
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Zachary Weiner
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology
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Alessandro P. M. Romano
Ministerio da Saude
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Gabriela R. T. Costa
Environmental Health Surveillance Directorate of the Federal District Brasilia Federal District Brazil
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Cristiano de Melo
Universidade de Brasilia
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Sherif R. Zaki
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology
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Márcio Botelho de Castro
Universidade de Brasilia
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Abstract

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic neglected disease of worldwide public health concern. Leptospira species can infect a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and can lead to a spectrum of disease, including severe and fatal forms. Herein, we report for the first time a fatal Leptospira interrogans infection in a free-ranging nonhuman primate (NHP), a black-tufted marmoset. Icterus, pulmonary hemorrhage, interstitial nephritis and hepatocellular dissociation were the main findings raising the suspicion of leptospirosis. Diagnostic confirmation was based on specific immunohistochemical and PCR assays for Leptospira species. Immunolocalization of leptospiral antigens and identification of pathogenic species ( L. interrogans species) were important for better understanding the pathogenesis of disease. One Health related implications of free-ranging NHPs in anthropized areas and transmission dynamics of human and animal leptospirosis are discussed.

Peer review status:ACCEPTED

28 Jun 2021Submitted to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
28 Jun 2021Submission Checks Completed
28 Jun 2021Assigned to Editor
04 Jul 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
26 Jul 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
27 Jul 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Major
05 Aug 20211st Revision Received
05 Aug 2021Submission Checks Completed
05 Aug 2021Assigned to Editor
06 Aug 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
11 Aug 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
12 Aug 2021Editorial Decision: Accept