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Atlas of Circulating Immune Cells in Kawasaki Disease
  • +7
  • Zhenyu Xie,
  • Yinde Huang,
  • Xinyang Li,
  • Yu Lun,
  • Xin Li,
  • Yuzhen He,
  • Song Wu,
  • Shiyue Wang,
  • Jianjian Sun,
  • Jian Zhang
Zhenyu Xie
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Yinde Huang
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Xinyang Li
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Yu Lun
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Xin Li
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Yuzhen He
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Song Wu
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Shiyue Wang
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Jianjian Sun
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Jian Zhang
China Medical University Second Hospital
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Abstract

Increased evidence shows that the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD) is caused by abnormal and unbalanced innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the changes in and functions of adaptive immune cells in KD peripheral blood are still controversial. In this study, three different methods, CIBERSORT, Immune Cell Abundance Identifier (ImmuCellAI), and immune cell markers, were used to evaluate the proportions and abundances of immune cells in eight KD datasets (GSE9863, GSE9864, GSE18606, GSE63881, GSE68004, GSE73461, GSE73463, and GSE64486; a total of 1,251 samples). Compared with those in normal controls and convalescent KD samples, the proportions and abundances of innate immune cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages in acute KD peripheral blood samples were significantly increased, while those of adaptive immune cells such as B and T cells were significantly decreased. The change tendency of these immune cells was similar to that seen in other febrile illnesses but more dramatic. However, in the coronary artery tissue of KD patients, adaptive immune cells, especially B cells and CD8+ T cell subsets, were significantly increased. This result suggests that adaptive immune cells are selectively recruited from peripheral blood into the coronary arteries. In addition, we found that elevated neutrophils in peripheral blood could be used as a biomarker to assist in the differential diagnosis of KD, but we did not find immune cells that can accurately predict intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) response in multiple datasets.