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Imaging Immunological Processes from Blood to Brain in ALS
  • +1
  • Sandra Amor,
  • Erik Nutma,
  • Manuel Marzin,
  • Fabiola Puentes
Sandra Amor
VU medisch centrum School of Medical Sciences
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Erik Nutma
VU medisch centrum School of Medical Sciences
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Manuel Marzin
VU medisch centrum School of Medical Sciences
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Fabiola Puentes
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Blizard Institute
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Abstract

Neuropathology studies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and animal models of ALS reveal a strong association between aberrant protein accumulation and motor neuron damage and activated microglia and astrocytes, the resident CNS innate immune cells. While the role of neuroinflammation in the pathology of ALS is unclear imaging studies support the idea that innate immune activation occurs early disease in both humans and rodent models of ALS. In addition to innate immunity, emerging studies also reveal the presence of peripheral monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the CNS as well as at the neuromuscular junction. To better understand the association of neuroinflammation (innate and adaptive) with disease progression paraclinical studies including the use of biomarkers and imaging modalities allow monitoring of immune parameters in the disease process. Such approaches are important for patient stratification, selection, and inclusion in clinical trials, as well as to provide readouts of response to therapy. Here, we discuss the different imaging modalities e.g., MRI, MRS, PET as well as other approaches including biomarkers of inflammation in ALS, aid the understanding of the underlying immune mechanisms associated with motor neuron degeneration in ALS.

Peer review status:ACCEPTED

08 Jun 2021Submitted to Clinical & Experimental Immunology
10 Jun 2021Submission Checks Completed
10 Jun 2021Assigned to Editor
10 Jun 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
03 Aug 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
04 Aug 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
18 Aug 20211st Revision Received
18 Aug 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
29 Aug 2021Editorial Decision: Accept