NSAIDs/Nitazoxanide/Azithromycin Repurposed for COVID-19: Potential Mitigation of the Cytokine Storm Interleukin-6 Amplifier via Immunomodulatory Effects
Mediators of immunity and inflammation are playing a crucial role in COVID-19 pathogenesis and complications as demonstrated by several genetic and clinical studies. Moreover, a weak, irregular, or inhibited early interferon response to SARS CoV-2 infection was shown to trigger an exaggerated inflammatory response leading to the COVID-19 associated mortality. Thus, repurposing of drugs that possess anti-inflammatory and/or immune-modulatory effects for COVID-19 is considered a rational approach.
We present a concise analysis and interpretations of selected studies that correlated COVID-19 with dysregulated interferon and inflammatory responses while reflecting on our academic and real-life experience using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, nitazoxanide and azithromycin for management of COVID-19. Moreover, we interpret the recent results that suggested a potential survival benefit of low dose aspirin and colchicine when used for COVID-19.