Acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) is the most common infection of the
lower airways in children under 2 years of age. Attempts to determine
the severity of the disease based on clinical and radiological
manifestations are a major challenge. Measurements of the anatomy of the
trachea, main bronchi and bronchioles are not limited to pure
anthropometry, but are also useful for better knowledge and
applicability in pulmonary physiology, thoracic surgery, anesthesiology
and in the care of critically ill patients. This is a cross-sectional,
retrospective study, which included all patients admitted to a tertiary
hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, over a period of one year, with a
diagnosis of AVB. The interbronchial angle (ITB) of these patients was
measured and clinical and epidemiological characteristics were analyzed.
A total of 425 patients were included, diagnosed with BVA by respiratory
syncytial virus (RSV) confirmed by immunofluorescence. Most of these
patients were male (59.5%) and the median age was 130 days, 91.11% of
them required oxygen therapy through a nasal catheter, 3.3% used
non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and 4% mechanical ventilation (MV) .
Among the studied patients, we obtained only one death (0.2%). Those
who required MV or NIV and support in an intensive care unit were
considered serious. The mean ITB was lower for these patients than for
less severe ones. It is concluded that the ABI has a correlation with
the prognosis of patients with AVB and, after further studies, can be
used as a severity score.